What is Multiple Sclerosis?

Multiple sclerosis is a disease that affects the brain, spinal cord, and visual nerves. These parts make up the central nervous system, which controls everything we do. We don’t know exactly what causes MS, but we do know that something causes the immune system to fight the central nervous system (CNS).

The damage to myelin, the insulating layer that covers wire-like nerve fibers, makes it hard for messages to and from the brain to get through. This disruption of communication signals causes symptoms that are hard to predict, such as numbness, tingling, mood changes, problems with memory, pain, tiredness, blindness, and/or paralysis. MS affects people in different ways, and these losses can be temporary or last for a long time.


Signs & Symptoms

MS signs are very different for each person and can show up in any part of the body.

These are the main signs:



Depending on the type of MS you have, your symptoms may come and go or get steadily worse over time.


Causes of Multiple Sclerosis

MS is an autoimmune disease. This happens when something goes wrong with the immune system and it attacks a healthy part of the body by mistake. In this case, the immune system attacks the brain or spinal cord, which are part of the nervous system.

In MS, the immune system attacks the myelin sheath, which is a layer that protects and wraps around the nerves.

This hurts and scars the sheath and maybe even the nerves underneath, which slows down or messes up the messages moving along the nerves.

It’s not clear what makes the immune system act this way, but most experts think it has to do with both genetics and the surroundings.


Treatment of Multiple Sclerosis

There is no cure for MS yet, but there are a number of ways to control the disease and ease its effects.

What you need to do to get better will depend on your individual symptoms and problems.

It could have:

Short courses of steroid medicine are used to treat relapses and speed up healing. Different treatments are used for each MS symptom. Drugs called disease-modifying antiretrovirals (DMARDs) are used to reduce the number of relapses.-changing treatment plans

People with a type of MS called “relapsing-remitting MS” and some people with “primary progressive MS” and “secondary progressive MS” who have relapses may also be able to slow or stop the general worsening of their disability with disease-modifying therapies.

Unfortunately, there is no treatment for either primary progressive MS or secondary progressive MS, where there are no relapses, that can slow the disease down.

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